Women Under the Qing Dynasty’s Nationality Law

Nationality laws regulate the citizenship rights of women who marry, divorce, and have children. Historically, many nationality laws discriminated against women. The Qing Dynasty’s Nationality Law (1909) is but one example:

Article V. The following persons … are considered to have acquired Chinese nationality: 1. An alien woman who has married a Chinese….

Article VII. A married woman can not alone apply for naturalization during the life of her husband.

Article XIII. The following persons shall be deemed to have lost Chinese nationality: 1. A Chinese woman who has married a foreigner….


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